In part 3 of the Gerunds and Infinitives Tutorial, we finish up our list of 20 tips on using gerunds and infinitives. We take a look at some of the exceptions and more advanced topics relating to gerund and infinitive usage.
Although the difference in meaning is small with these particular verbs, and gerunds and infinitives can often be used interchangeably, there is still a meaning difference. Using a gerund suggests that you are referring to real activities or experiences. Using an infinitive suggests that you are talking about potential or possible activities or experiences. Because of this small difference in meaning, gerunds and infinitives cannot always be used interchangeably, such as in the examples below.
The British reporter likesliving in New York. He lives in New York and he likes what he experiences there.
The British reporter likesto live in New York whenever he works in the United States. He likes the option or possibility of living in New York when he works in the United States.
I like speaking French because it's such a beautiful language. I like the experience of speaking French, and the way it makes me feel when I speak the language.
I like to speak French when I'm in France. I prefer the option of speaking French when I am in France.
19. Verbs which indicate location can often be followed by "ING" forms. This pattern is VERB OF LOCATION + LOCATION + VERB+ING. List of Verbs of Location
Sarah stoodat the cornerwaiting for Tom.
Melissa layin bedthinking about her future.
Don clungto the side of the clifflooking down.
20. In addition to simple gerund and infinitive forms, there are progressive gerund and infinitive forms, passive gerund and infinitive forms and perfect gerund and infinitive forms as well as combinations of these forms. Progressive forms are used to emphasize that an action is taking place now. Passive forms are used to emphasize that the subject of the sentence is being acted upon. Perfect gerund and infinitive forms are used to emphasize completion in both the past and the future. Study the examples below to help understand these concepts. To learn more about progressiveness, the passive voice and the perfect aspect, complete the Englishpage.com Verb Tense Tutorial.
The teacher enjoys teaching.
The teacher wants to teach.
Mr. Smith is really enjoying teaching his class. Looks the same as simple form above.
Mr. Smith would like to be teaching his class.
The students enjoy being taught.
The students want to be taught.
The retired teacher recalled having taught.
The teacher was expecting to have taught that already.
PASSIVE + PROGRESSIVE
The students are enjoying being taught by such an exciting new teacher. Looks the same as the passive form above.
The students would like to be being taught by Mr Smith.
PASSIVE + PERFECT
The older students recalled having been taught that already.
The students were expecting to have been taught that by now.