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Irregular Verbs's List of English Irregular Verbs contains over 370 irregular verbs used in modern English. We also offer free irregular verb flashcards and exercises, a printable PDF of the Top 100 Irregular Verbs, and an extended list including rare verb forms. Just scroll down to begin!

List of Irregular Verbs

Base Form Simple Past Past Participle
arise arose arisen
awake awakened / awoke awakened / awoken
backslide backslid backslidden / backslid
be [am, is, are] was, were been
bear bore born / borne
beat beat beaten / beat
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet / betted [?] bet / betted [?]
bid (farewell) bid / bade bidden
bid (offer amount) bid bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast / broadcasted broadcast / broadcasted
browbeat browbeat browbeaten / browbeat
build built built
burn burned / burnt [?] burned / burnt [?]
burst burst burst
bust busted / bust busted / bust
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
clothe clothed / clad [?] clothed / clad [?]
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
crossbreed crossbred crossbred
cut cut cut
daydream daydreamed / daydreamt [?] daydreamed / daydreamt [?]
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
disprove disproved disproved / disproven
dive (jump head-first) dove / dived dived
dive (scuba diving) dived / dove dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed / dreamt [?] dreamed / dreamt [?]
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt / dwelled [?] dwelt / dwelled [?]
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit (tailor, change size) fitted / fit [?] fitted / fit [?]
fit (be right size) fit / fitted [?] fit / fitted [?]
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forecast forecast, forecasted forecast, forecasted
forego (also forgo) forewent foregone
foresee foresaw foreseen
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten / forgot [?]
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
frostbite frostbit frostbitten
get got gotten / got [?]
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hand-feed hand-fed hand-fed
handwrite handwrote handwritten
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hew hewed hewn / hewed
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
inbreed inbred inbred
inlay inlaid inlaid
input input / inputted input / inputted
interbreed interbred interbred
interweave interwove / interweaved interwoven / interweaved
interwind interwound interwound
jerry-build jerry-built jerry-built
keep kept kept
kneel knelt / kneeled knelt / kneeled
knit knitted / knit knitted / knit
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned / leant [?] leaned / leant [?]
leap leaped / leapt [?] leaped / leapt [?]
learn learned / learnt [?] learned / learnt [?]
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
lie (not tell truth) REGULAR lied lied
light lit / lighted lit / lighted
lip-read lip-read lip-read
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
miscast miscast miscast
misdeal misdealt misdealt
misdo misdid misdone
mishear misheard misheard
mislay mislaid mislaid
mislead misled misled
mislearn mislearned / mislearnt [?] mislearned / mislearnt [?]
misread misread misread
misset misset misset
misspeak misspoke misspoken
misspell misspelled / misspelt [?] misspelled / misspelt [?]
misspend misspent misspent
mistake mistook mistaken
misteach mistaught mistaught
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
miswrite miswrote miswritten
mow mowed mowed / mown
No irregular verbs beginning with "N."
offset offset offset
outbid outbid outbid
outbreed outbred outbred
outdo outdid outdone
outdraw outdrew outdrawn
outdrink outdrank outdrunk
outdrive outdrove outdriven
outfight outfought outfought
outfly outflew outflown
outgrow outgrew outgrown
outleap outleaped / outleapt [?] outleaped / outleapt [?]
outlie (not tell truth) REGULAR outlied outlied
outride outrode outridden
outrun outran outrun
outsell outsold outsold
outshine outshined / outshone [?] outshined / outshone [?]
outshoot outshot outshot
outsing outsang outsung
outsit outsat outsat
outsleep outslept outslept
outsmell outsmelled / outsmelt [?] outsmelled / outsmelt [?]
outspeak outspoke outspoken
outspeed outsped outsped
outspend outspent outspent
outswear outswore outsworn
outswim outswam outswum
outthink outthought outthought
outthrow outthrew outthrown
outwrite outwrote outwritten
overbid overbid overbid
overbreed overbred overbred
overbuild overbuilt overbuilt
overbuy overbought overbought
overcome overcame overcome
overdo overdid overdone
overdraw overdrew overdrawn
overdrink overdrank overdrunk
overeat overate overeaten
overfeed overfed overfed
overhang overhung overhung
overhear overheard overheard
overlay overlaid overlaid
overpay overpaid overpaid
override overrode overridden
overrun overran overrun
oversee oversaw overseen
oversell oversold oversold
oversew oversewed oversewn / oversewed
overshoot overshot overshot
oversleep overslept overslept
overspeak overspoke overspoken
overspend overspent overspent
overspill overspilled / overspilt [?] overspilled / overspilt [?]
overtake overtook overtaken
overthink overthought overthought
overthrow overthrew overthrown
overwind overwound overwound
overwrite overwrote overwritten
partake partook partaken
pay paid paid
plead pleaded / pled pleaded / pled
prebuild prebuilt prebuilt
predo predid predone
premake premade premade
prepay prepaid prepaid
presell presold presold
preset preset preset
preshrink preshrank preshrunk
proofread proofread proofread
prove proved proven / proved
put put put
quick-freeze quick-froze quick-frozen
quit quit / quitted [?] quit / quitted [?]
read read (sounds like "red") read (sounds like "red")
reawake reawoke reawaken
rebid rebid rebid
rebind rebound rebound
rebroadcast rebroadcast / rebroadcasted rebroadcast / rebroadcasted
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt
recast recast recast
recut recut recut
redeal redealt redealt
redo redid redone
redraw redrew redrawn
refit (replace parts) refit / refitted [?] refit / refitted [?]
refit (retailor) refitted / refit [?] refitted / refit [?]
regrind reground reground
regrow regrew regrown
rehang rehung rehung
rehear reheard reheard
reknit reknitted / reknit reknitted / reknit
relay (for example tiles) relaid relaid
relay (pass along) REGULAR relayed relayed
relearn relearned / relearnt [?] relearned / relearnt [?]
relight relit / relighted relit / relighted
remake remade remade
repay repaid repaid
reread reread reread
rerun reran rerun
resell resold resold
resend resent resent
reset reset reset
resew resewed resewn / resewed
retake retook retaken
reteach retaught retaught
retear retore retorn
retell retold retold
rethink rethought rethought
retread retread retread
retrofit retrofitted / retrofit [?] retrofitted / retrofit [?]
rewake rewoke / rewaked rewaken / rewaked
rewear rewore reworn
reweave rewove / reweaved rewoven / reweaved
rewed rewed / rewedded rewed / rewedded
rewet rewet / rewetted [?] rewet / rewetted [?]
rewin rewon rewon
rewind rewound rewound
rewrite rewrote rewritten
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
roughcast roughcast roughcast
run ran run
sand-cast sand-cast sand-cast
saw sawed sawed / sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn / sewed
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved / shaven
shear sheared sheared / shorn
shed shed shed
shine shined / shone [?] shined / shone [?]
shit shit / shat / shitted shit/ shat / shitted
shoot shot shot
show showed shown / showed
shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk
shut shut shut
sight-read sight-read sight-read
sing sang sung
sink sank / sunk sunk
sit sat sat
slay (kill) slew / slayed slain / slayed
slay (amuse) REGULAR slayed slayed
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slinked / slunk slinked / slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelled / smelt [?] smelled / smelt [?]
sneak sneaked / snuck sneaked / snuck
sow sowed sown / sowed
speak spoke spoken
speed sped / speeded sped / speeded
spell spelled / spelt [?] spelled / spelt [?]
spend spent spent
spill spilled / spilt [?] spilled / spilt [?]
spin spun spun
spit spit / spat spit / spat
split split split
spoil spoiled / spoilt [?] spoiled / spoilt [?]
spoon-feed spoon-fed spoon-fed
spread spread spread
spring sprang / sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stunk / stank stunk
strew strewed strewn / strewed
stride strode stridden
strike (delete) struck stricken
strike (hit) struck struck / stricken
string strung strung
strive strove / strived striven / strived
sublet sublet sublet
sunburn sunburned / sunburnt [?] sunburned / sunburnt [?]
swear swore sworn
sweat sweat / sweated sweat / sweated
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen / swelled
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
telecast telecast telecast
tell told told
test-drive test-drove test-driven
test-fly test-flew test-flown
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden / trod
typecast typecast typecast
typeset typeset typeset
typewrite typewrote typewritten
unbend unbent unbent
unbind unbound unbound
unclothe unclothed / unclad [?] unclothed / unclad [?]
underbid underbid underbid
undercut undercut undercut
underfeed underfed underfed
undergo underwent undergone
underlie underlay underlain
undersell undersold undersold
underspend underspent underspent
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
underwrite underwrote underwritten
undo undid undone
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen
unhang unhung unhung
unhide unhid unhidden
unknit unknitted / unknit unknitted / unknit
unlearn unlearned / unlearnt [?] unlearned / unlearnt [?]
unsew unsewed unsewn / unsewed
unsling unslung unslung
unspin unspun unspun
unstick unstuck unstuck
unstring unstrung unstrung
unweave unwove / unweaved unwoven / unweaved
unwind unwound unwound
uphold upheld upheld
upset upset upset
No commonly used irregular verbs beginning with "V."
To view our extended dictionary including rare and antiquated forms, Click Here.
wake woke / waked woken / waked
waylay waylaid waylaid
wear wore worn
weave wove / weaved woven / weaved
wed wed / wedded wed / wedded
weep wept wept
wet wet / wetted [?] wet / wetted [?]
whet  REGULAR whetted whetted
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written
No irregular verbs beginning with "X."
No irregular verbs beginning with "Y."
No irregular verbs beginning with "Z."

Irregular Verb Flashcards and Drills

Below, we have created eight sets of flashcards as well as simple irregular verb drills to help English learners learn more than 160 of the most common irregular verbs in English.

Irregular Verb Flashcards 1 Irregular Verb Drill 1
Irregular Verb Flashcards 2 Irregular Verb Drill 2
Irregular Verb Flashcards 3 Irregular Verb Drill 3
Irregular Verb Flashcards 4 Irregular Verb Drill 4
Irregular Verb Flashcards 5 Irregular Verb Drill 5
Irregular Verb Flashcards 6 Irregular Verb Drill 6
Irregular Verb Flashcards 7 Irregular Verb Drill 7
Irregular Verb Flashcards 8 Irregular Verb Drill 8

The 100 Most Common English Irregular Verbs

Download our printable PDF List of the 100 Most Common Irregular Verbs in English. English teachers and trainers, please read our terms of use.

Common Questions about English Irregular Verbs

What are irregular verbs?

Irregular verbs are verbs which do not follow normal rules for conjugation. For example, the irregular verb be has several unique forms (I am, you are, he is) which are quite different from regular verbs such as cook (I cook, you cook, he cooks).

How many irregular verbs are there in English? has conducted an extensive text analysis of over 2,000 novels and resources and we have found 680 irregular verbs so far including prefixed verbs (misunderstand, reread) as well as rare and antiquated forms (colorbreed, bethink).

What are some examples of irregular verbs?

Good examples of irregular verbs include have, understand and draw. Notice that their past forms had, understood and drew are very different from regular verbs, which end with -d or -ed. For more examples, see's list of irregular verbs.

What are the most common irregular verbs in English?

According to's text analysis of over 2,000 novels and resources, the most common irregular verbs in English are: be, have, say, do, know, get, see, think, go and take.

Are there big differences in the irregular verb forms used in British English and American English?

While many references show strong differences between British and American English in irregular verb use,'s research shows that there is far more crossover than many of these references might suggest. (Where we did find a real statistical difference, we have listed the British forms in italics.)

Which verb tenses have irregular forms in English?

In English, irregular verb forms occur in simple present and simple past as well as past participles. Remember that past participles are used in many verb forms including: present perfect, past perfect, future perfect, passive forms and past conditional forms.

More about our Irregular Verb Dictionary

Read about our irregular verb research and how these resources were created.

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